ANALISIS EFEKTIVITAS PEMBIAYAAN MIKRO SYARIAH BAGI PEMBERDAYAAN MASYARAKAT MISKIN: STUDI PADA KOPERASI MITRA MANINDO MANDAILING NATAL

Lokot Zein Nasution

Abstract


Selama ini, pembiayaan mikro berbasis syariah dipandang belum mampu memberikan nilai lebih bagi pengentasan kemiskinan dibandingkan model konvensional. Padahal, secara konseptual prinsip syariah mempunyai beragam kelebihan dibandingkan model konvensional. Berdasarkan persoalan tersebut, maka penelitian ini mempunyai dua tujuan, yaitu: (i) untuk menilai efektivitas pembiayaan mikro syariah bagi pemberdayaan masyarakat miskin; dan (ii) untuk mengetahui model pembiayaan mikro berbasis syariah yang mampu menciptakan program pemberdayaan secara efektif. Untuk itu, penelitian ini mengadopsi Cluster Analysis untuk menjawab tujuan penelitian yang pertama, dan pendekatan evaluatif dan literature review untuk menjawab tujuan penelitian yang kedua. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Koperasi Mitra Manindo (KMM), Kabupaten Mandailing Natal, Provinsi Sumatera Utara yang mengadopsi prinsip syariah dalam menyalurkan pembiayaan mikro. Hasil pengolahan terhadap 102 responden menemukan empat temuan penting, yaitu: (i) pembiayaan mikro syariah KMM mampu meningkatkan pendapatan anggota; (ii) pembiayaan mikro syariah KMM mampu meningkatkan kemampuan anggota dalam perencanaan usaha; (iii) pembiayaan mikro syariah KMM mampu meningkatkan kemampuan anggota dalam melaksanakan usaha; dan (iv) pembiayaan mikro syariah KMM mampu meningkatkan kapasitas anggota dalam melakukan evaluasi dan pertanggungjawaban usaha. Terdapat relevansi yang kuat antara adopsi syariah dengan eliminasi perilaku moral hazard dan peningkatan produktivitas usaha. Keduanya bisa tercapai akibat transformasi karakter masyarakat sasaran melalui kegiatan pemberdayaan. Capaian tersebut mempertegas bahwa terdapat hubungan yang kuat antara prinsip syariah terhadap efektivitas program pemberdayaan.


Keywords


Syariah, Moralitas, Pemberdayaan, Moral Hazard, Produktivitas

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.37403/mjm.v6i2.188

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